Chronique d’un été (Paris 1960)
Chronique d'un été - Paris 1960, Edgar Morin & Jean Rouch, F 1961
Chronique d’un été (1961) is an experimental arrangement, in which several real-life protagonists discuss and debate a variety of social and political topics, including the film itself. The Holocaust is not explicitly discussed. However, a significant sequence implicitly relates to the persecution of Jews during World War Two. During a discussion of young Frenchmen and students from African countries about colonialism and racism, the camera focuses on the arm of a young French woman and reveals a number tattoo.This indirect use of the original number tattoo footage in Edgar Morin’s and Jean Rouch’s ethnographic documentary emphasizes its symbolic and connective function. The scene deals with multidirectional memories. Different experiences of colonialism, racism and antisemitism are intertwined in a dialogic situation during the group conversation initiated by the directors, which is interrupted by verbally and visually pointing towards the number tattoo of Holocaust survivor Marceline Loridan-Ivens. The close-up shot of the number alludes to the historical footage, especially the close-up shot, in an indirect way by utilizing the same shot size. As in many indirect uses of the number tattoo the main focus is on the protagonist, which is indicated by the symbolic number tattoo as a survivor. This is further intensified by the following scene showing Marceline walking through the Place de la Concorde and Les Halles, recalling memories from her past to herself that are recorded by a transportable device. By the help of a mobile sound recording device the viewers listen to Loridan’s monologue about her memories from Auschwitz. This indicates that the number tattoo has a triggering effect, which corresponds to the ethnographic approach of the film. Chronique d‘un été is considered a prototypical example of the cinema verité documentary genre.
The depiction of the number is not explicitly referring to the sequence in the Soviet liberation footage. Nevertheless, it establishes an indirect and allusive relation. Here, the number has a symbolizing function, shifting attention away from the historical events towards the speaking position of the survivor. Therefore, it is telling that with the Eichmann Trial in Jerusalem the year 1961 marks the beginning of what Annette Wieviorka has defined as “era of the witness.”